World Economy
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World Economic Organizations

The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development

The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development was established in 1991 when communism was crumbling in central and eastern Europe and ex-soviet countries needed support to nurture a new private sector in a democratic environment. Today the EBRD uses the tools of investment to help build market economies and democracies in 28 countries from central Europe to central Asia. The EBRD is the largest single investor in the region and mobilises significant foreign direct investment beyond its own financing.

Intercontinental Exchange (ICE)

ICE’s products include derivative contracts based on key energy commodities: crude oil and refined oil products such as heating oil and jet fuel, and other products like natural gas and electric power. Recently, ICE Futures introduced what has become Europe’s leading emissions futures contract in conjunction with the European Climate Exchange. The majority of trades in ICE’s markets are cash-settled, based on the value of the underlying commodity, rather than settled through physical delivery of the commodity.

The International Monetary Fund

The IMF is an international organization of 184 member countries. It was established to promote international monetary cooperation, exchange stability, and orderly exchange arrangements; to foster economic growth and high levels of employment; and to provide temporary financial assistance to countries to help ease balance of payments adjustment. Since the IMF was established its purposes have remained unchanged but its operations—which involve surveillance, financial assistance, and technical assistance—have developed to meet the changing needs of its member countries in an evolving world economy.

The London Metal Exchange (LME)

The London Metal Exchange is the world's premier non-ferrous metals market with highly liquid contracts and a worldwide reputation. It is innovative while maintaining its traditional strengths and remains close to its core users by ensuring its contracts continue to meet the high expectations of industry. As a result, it is highly successful with a turnover in excess of US$4,500 billion per annum. It also contributes to the UK’s invisible earnings to the sum of more than 250 million pounds in overseas earnings each year.

The New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX)

The New York Mercantile Exchange, Inc., is the world's largest physical commodity futures exchange and the preeminent trading forum for energy and precious metals. The Exchange has stood for market integrity and price transparency throughout its 132-year history. Transactions executed on the Exchange avoid the risk of counterparty default because the Exchange clearinghouse acts as the counterparty to every trade.

Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE)

The stock trading floor has attracted attention as a symbol of the securities and financial markets of our country for more than 120 years since floor trading began at the former Tokyo Stock Exchange, the predecessor of the current Tokyo Stock Exchange, on June 1, 1878. However, the stock trading floor was closed on April 30, 1999 in an effort to accelerate the speed and reduce the cost of transactions by member securities companies, and seek further efficiency in the Tokyo market.

The World Bank Group

The World Bank Group is a group of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and poverty reduction, and for encouraging and safeguarding international investment. The group and its affiliates have their headquarters in Washington, D.C., with local offices in 124 member countries. Together with the separate International Monetary Fund, the World Bank organizations are often called the "Bretton Woods" institutions, after Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, where the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference that led to their establishment took place (1 July-22 July 1944).